Terms

Mantra

Mantra is an instrument of mind and is one of the three instruments (tras). subdivision of Mantra or counsel (said to be five , viz. 1.{karmaNAm@ArambhopAyaH} means of commencing operations ; 2. {puruSa-dravya-sampad} , providing men and materials 3. {deza-kAla-vibhAga} , distribution of place and time 4. {vipatti-pratIkAra} , counter-action of disaster 5. {kArya-siddhi} , successful accomplishment whence {mantra} is said to be {paJcAGga Cologne Sanskrit Dictionary under Vedas each of the four Vedas has two distinct parts , viz. 1. Mantra , i.e. words of prayer and adoration often addressed either to fire or to some form of the sun or to some form of the air , sky , wind &c. , and praying for health , wealth , long life , cattle , offspring , victory , and even forgiveness of sins and 2. Brahmana ....as the Vedas are properly three , so the Mantras are properly of three forms 1. Ric , which are verses of praise in metre , and intended for loud recitation 2. Yajus , which are in prose , and intended for recitation in a lower tone at sacrifices 3. Saman , which are in metre , and intended for chanting at the Soma or Moon-plant ceremonies, the Mantras of the fourth or Atharva-veda having no special name ; but it must be borne in mind that the Yajur and Sama-veda hymns , especially the latter , besides their own Mantras , borrow largely from the Rig-veda ; the Yajur-veda and Sama-veda being in fact not so much collections of prayers and hymns as special prayer- and hymn-books intended as manuals for the Adhvaryu and Udgati priests respectively [see {yajur-veda} , {sAma-veda}] ; the Atharva-veda , on the other hand , is , like the Rig-veda , a real collection of original hymns mixed up with incantations , borrowing little from the Rig and having no direct relation to sacrifices , but supposed by mere recitation to produce long life , to cure diseases , to effect the ruin of enemies &c. ; each of the four Vedas seems to have passed through numerous Sakhas or schools , giving rise to various recensions of the text , though the Rig-veda is only preserved in the S3a1kala recension , while a second recension , that of the Bhashkalas , is only known by name ; a tradition makes Vyasa the compiler and arranger of the Vedas in their present form: they each have an Index or Anukramani [q.v.] , the principal work of this kind being the general Index or Sarvanukramani [q.v.] ; out of the Brahmana portion of the Veda grew two other departments of Vedic literature , sometimes included under the general name Veda , viz. the strings of aphoristic rules , called Sutras [q.v.] , and the mystical treatises on the nature of God and the relation of soul and matter , called Upanishad [q.v.] , which were appended to the Aranyakas [q.v.] , and became the real Veda of thinking Hindu1s , leading to the Darsanas or systems of philosophy ; in the later literature the name of fifth Veda is accorded to the Itihasas or legendary epic poems and to the Pura1n2as , and certain secondary Vedas or Upa-vedas [q.v.] are enumerated ; the Vedangas or works serving as limbs [for preserving the integrity] of the Veda are explained under {vedAGga} below: the only other works included under the head of Veda being the Parisishtas , which supply rules for the ritual omitted in the Sutras ; in the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad the Vedas are represented as the breathings of Brahma , while in some of the Puranas the four Vedas are said to have issued out of the four mouths of the four-faced Brahma and in the Vishnu-Purana the Veda and Vishnu are identified) RTL. 7 &c. IW. 5 ; 24 &c. ; N. of the number four VarBr2S. [1015,3] Srutabh. ; feeling , perception S3Br. ; = {vRtta} (v.l. {vitta}) L. (cf. 2.{veda}).
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