5 Kingdoms

The 5 Kingdom model excludes minerals but includes two of the traditional 3 Kingdoms: i.e Animal, Vegetable, or Zoology and Botany. Recent developments challenge the Monera as a separate Kingdom. Such debates about even the most basic categories are a dramatic testimony to the changing classes of knowledge. Prokaryotic Cells Without Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles 1. Kingdom Monera [10,000 species]: Unicellular and colonial--including the true bacteria (eubacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eukaryotic Cells With Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. Kingdom Protista (Protoctista) [250,000 species]: Unicellular protozoans and unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic) algae with 9 + 2 cilia and flagella (called undulipodia). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3. Kingdom Fungi [100,000 species]: Haploid and dikaryotic (binucleate) cells, multicellular, generally heterotrophic, without cilia and eukaryotic (9 + 2) flagella (undulipodia). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4. Kingdom Plantae [250,000 species]: Haplo-diploid life cycles, mostly autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ on parent plant. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5. Kingdom Animalia [1,000,000 species]: Cited from Website: The Five Kingdoms

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