Subsumptive Relations

Perreault in conjunction with Dahlberg, distingusihed between Subsumptive, Determinative and Ordinal Relations. Subsumptive Relations are hierarchical relations which lend themselves to trees. Aristotle addressed the problem of Knowledge by starting with Entiities (Being and Substance) and their Properties (10 Accidents). In his approach the Defintion of these entities and properties were the Formal Cause which was one of 4 Causes. In Logic, a distinction arose between: Divisio (abstract divisions) and Partitio (parts). In modern terms these are Taxonomy and Partonomy. Divisio = Taxonomy is the basis of what is called Scientific Classification and is used to class the Animal, Vegetable and to a certain extent the Mineral worlds. In computer science this is: is a Partitio = Partonomy is used to elaborate the parts of objects. In computer science this is: has a and is a part of. In industry these are parts catalogues. In the library world these are visual dictionaries. In the library world, subsumptive Relations are hierarchical relations where those higher in the list are Broader Terms and those lower in the list are Narrower Terms. In professional library circles, (cf. Subsumptive Relations: Libraries there are further distinctions between: Holonymy Hypernymy Hyponymy Meronymy Partonomy Unfortuantely the major Classification Systems in librraies were made using pragmatic approaches, before these distinctions were in place. Recent attempts at ontologies often confuse matters because they do not always distingusih clearly between Divisio (Taxonomy) and Partitio (Partonymy). A deeper and more elusive problem is that knowledge organization does not yet relate systematically knowledge of universals, which are unaffected by Space and Time (e.g. the concept of apples in the tradition of Plato) and particulars which are in Space and Time (examples of indvidual apples in the tradition of Aristotle). In very simple terms, Libraries and memory instsitutions tell us much about the universals of apples than about the particulars of cultivars, varieties or about specific apples in the market place. While there are clear distinctions between taxonomy (domain, phylum, species of apples), partonomy (parts of apples), it is dificult to gain access to gain knowledge about the Determinative Relations and Ordinal Relations of apples. Entities - Attributes