5 Shaiva Tribes

The Bharatas successfully maintained and extended their kingdom a little east. The people of the east were different from the Dramilas. They were, of course, non-Aryan, but their languages, their appearance, and their attitudes towards migrants was quite different, at least initially. There were Eastern kingdoms on the Ganga as well as downstream. A great imperial confederacy was centered around Magadha. The region upstream to and beyond the Ganga to the Himalayan foothills had not been settled significantly by the Easterners because the river and the land were considered unstable. Also, the valley of Kashmir was settled by the mountain tribes, that called themselves the Shaiva tribes ruled by the Shiva family, and they resisted any Aryan advance into the areas they controlled. The Shaivas disapproved of the Aryan settlements but had been powerless to stop it outside the areas immediately adjacent to themselves. Cited from An experiment in Birth Control.