4 Causes

4 Causes Final, Formal, Material, Efficient Causes Final Why Formal What Material How (Passive) Efficient How (Active), Who Final Cause Goal (Telos), Purpose Function of House Formal Cause Essence, Substance, Definition Head Bricklayer Material Cause Suffering (Processes) Bricks, Stones Efficient Cause Action (Operations) Carpenter cf. Use of PRECIS to express the subject: The renovation of houses by developers in Darmstadt Concepts Roles _____________________________________ PRECIS Analysis: Renovation = Action Houses = Object of the action Developers = Agent of the action Darmstadt = Location Resulting coding: (0) Darmstadt (1) houses (2) renovation $v by $w of (3) developers Index entries generated by computer: Darmstadt Houses. Renovation by developers Houses. Darmstadt Renovation by developers Renovation. Houses. Darmstadt By developers Developers. Darmstadt Renovation of houses (example from Dykstra, "Handling the Stuff Itself")