Terms

9 Means of Certain Knowledge

9 Means of Acquiring Certain Knowledge 6 Means of Acquiring Certain Knowledge {pratyakSa} , perception by the senses {anumAna} , inference {upamAna} , analogy or comparison {zabda} or {Apta-vacana} , verbal authority , revelation {an-upalabdhi} or {abhAva-pratyakSa} , non-perception or negative proof {arthApatti} , inference from circumstances other schools increase the number to 9 by adding {sambhava} , equivalence ; {aitihya} , tradition or fallible testimony ; and {ceSTA} , gesture IW. 60 &c. &c.)
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