ye y , i
Y behaves as consonant as well as vowel
The roman letter ‘y’ represents Urdu consonant ye.
In Urdu word yaqeenﻳﻘﻴ ﻦ ‘belief’, ‘y’ is used as a
consonant. But ‘y’ is part of vowel sequences too, as
can be seen in table 2. For example hay ﮯ ﮨ ‘is’ has
roman letter sequence ‘ay’ for Urdu “ے” (bari ye).
This implies that it is ambiguous during transliteration
whether this particular instance of ‘y’ is a consonant or
part of the vowel sequence. As ‘y’ is part of only two
vowel sequences (‘ay’ and ‘ey’), it acts as a vowel only
if it follows ‘a’ or ‘e’. In all the other contexts, it acts
as a consonant.
The consonant ‘y’ does not always map on ye. It
maps on “ء” (hamza) in certain contexts. When
followed by ‘i’, ‘e’, ‘o’, it can represent Urdu hamza
too as in gayi ﺊﮔ ‘(she) went’, gaye ﮯ ﺌﮔ ‘(they) went’
and jayo ﻮﺋﺎ ﺟ ‘(you) go’. Hence the consonant ‘y’ that
precedes ‘i’, ‘o’ and ‘u’ can map on both Urdu “ﯼ” (ye)
and “ء” (hamza).