• Perspective



Kim H. Veltman

Developments in Perspective

Published in: Visual Mathematics, ed. Michele Emmer, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1993, pp. 199-205.

A growing historical awareness means that there have been many more books on Renaissance perspective published in the twentieth than in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries combined. Renaissance perspective focussed on geometrical space. Twentieth century versions of perspective focus on visual space and hence entail a variety of alternative picture planes: spherical, cylindrical and even polygonal. New goals of art have influenced these developments as have computer algorithms, cartographical methods, new awareness of illusions, the development of virtual reality and fractals.

1. Introduction
2. Renaissance Perspective
3. Vision and Geometry
4. Multiple Goals
5. Alternative Picture Planes
6. Transformations
7. Ambiguities and Illusions
8. Virtual Reality
9. Scale and Fractals
10. Conclusions

1. Introduction
Arnason, in his standard History of Modern Art described Renaissance art as "imitations of nature" and claimed that: "Perhaps the greatest revolution of early modern art lay in the abandonment of this attitude and the perspective technique that made it possible". 1Such claims have led to a widespread view that interest in perspective died in the twentieth century. Even a quick glance at the number of books published on perspective since the fifteenth century reveals that this is not the case.

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